On paper, getting a cow in calf is a simple three step process; bulling (estrus), service and conception. In practice, a multitude of factors commonly result in a frustrating barren cow. A multitude of strategies can be used to maximize the chance of a pregnancy ranging from simple paper exercises (such as breeding calendars) to more advanced techniques. There is no right or wrong; a suitable approach is based on farm-specific requirements. Many of you will be familiar with a strategy or have established protocols on farm already, however a recap of the basics through to the more advanced options will hopefully be a helpful review.