1) Summer mastitis, as its name suggests, is a specific type of mastitis that predominately, though not exclusively, occurs during these warm summer months with cows out at pasture. It can also affect heifers, leading to devastating effects. Colloquially it is also known as 'August bag'.
2) Why do cows leave the dairy? Each year between a quarter (25%) and a third (33%) of milking cows are replaced. Often culling is thought of as a major expense and many seek to lower their cull rate as a pathway to increased profitability. This is not the case - despite what many financial advisors and accountants may believe.